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Distributional Semantics Beyond Words: Supervised Learning of Analogy and Paraphrase


There have been several efforts to extend distributional semantics beyond individual words, to measure the similarity of word pairs, phrases, and sentences (briefly, tuples; ordered sets of words, contiguous or noncontiguous). One way to extend beyond words is to compare two tuples using a function that combines pairwise similarities between the component words in the tuples. A strength of this approach is that it works with both relational similarity (analogy) and compositional similarity (paraphrase). However, past work required hand-coding the combination function for different tasks. The main contribution of this paper is that combination functions are generated by supervised learning. We achieve state-of-the-art results in measuring relational similarity between word pairs (SAT analogies and SemEval 2012 Task 2) and measuring compositional similarity between noun-modifier phrases and unigrams (multiple-choice paraphrase questions).